taPrime Consulting Ltd

Freeze drying information

On this page we are collecting together some useful information, which you can download, as pdf files, for your own use.

The Science of Freeze drying.  Our taPrimer archive contains a series of short tutorial articles on the science behind freeze drying.

Tg'  Temperatures of common materials.  At taprime we recognise Tg', the glass transition temperature of a solution, as the most important parameter to measure in order to develop a freeze drying process.  When formulating a product it is useful to know what is the Tg' of any intended excipient. Will it increase or decrease the Tg' of the active ingredient?  So we have collected together the glass transition temperatures of  some commonly used materials in our  Tg' Table.  If you would like to suggest any additions or amendments, please mail us.

Saturation Vapour Pressure, or to be more precise, the saturation vapour pressure (SVP) of water over ice!  Useful to know when setting the pressure for ice sublimation.  At a pressure above SVP, sublimation will stop, therefore the pressure should not exceed the value of SVP at the product temperature.  Our table lists the value of SVP, in mtorr, mbar and Pa, at temperatures in the range -10 to -50 ºC. SVP water over ice

 Pressure Unit Conversion  Need to know the pressure in mbar, but you can only find the value in "hPa" or "inches of mercury"?  Then use our pressure conversion table to change between the most popular, and a few less popular, pressure units.   Pressure conversion table 

Looking for a textbook on freeze-drying?  Not surprisingy we recommend
Freeze drying of Pharmaceuticals and BioPharmaceuticals; principles and practice.
Felix Franks in association with Tony Auffret.
Publishers; Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN-13:978-0-85404-268-5 (2007).

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